A pilot study of the effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on autism symptoms, oxidative stress and inflammation has been published in BMC Pediatrics. In The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on oxidative stress, inflammation, and symptoms in children with autism: an open-label pilot study Daniel A Rossignol , Lanier W Rossignol , S. Jill James , Stepan Melnyk and Elizabeth Mumper report their findings and conclusions from a study of 18 children with autism aged 3-16 who underwent 40 hyperbaric sessions of 45 minutes duration each at either 1.5 atmospheres (atm) and 100% oxygen, or at 1.3 atm and 24% oxygen. On safety issues the authors report that maximum pressure of 1.5 atm with up to 100% oxygen was safe and well tolerated. In terms of improvements the report indicates, as set out in the abstract, that "HBOT significantly decreased inflammation as measured by CRP levels. Parental observations support anecdotal accounts of improvement in several domains of autism." The authors of the paper note that this was an "open label" study and "definitive statements regarding the efficacy of HBOT for the treatment of individuals with autism must await results from double-blind, controlled trials".